Kaguya carries a HDTV camera which it has used to capture the first HD images of Earth from space. Kaguya however is full of firsts. It will be the first probe to orbit the Moon at an extremely close proximity of about 100 km.
Kaguya will break into three main parts once it achieves orbit: the main orbiter, a VRAD satellite (Vstar) and a relay satellite (Rstar). The main orbiter will use its instruments in conjunction with the other peripheral satellites.
The instrument payload includes:
- HDTV High-Definition Video Camera
- X-Ray Spectrometer
- Gamma Ray Spectrometer
- Multiband Imager
- Spectral Profiler
- Terrain Camera
- Lunar Radar Sounder
- Laser Altimeter
- Lunar Magnetometer
- Charged Particle Spectrometer
- Plasma Energy Angle and Composition experiment
- Radio Science
- Upper atmosphere and plasma imager
- RSAT Gravity Four-Way Doppler
- Differential VLBI Radio Source
Check out the official instrument page for detailed descriptions of what each instrument does.
Kaguya is expected to be in lunar orbit on October 19th.